As most economies in the world continue to depend on steels, cements, and chemicals to satisfy basic needs, it is vital that the industries can make a speedy shift from carbon-intensive production to carbon-free one. Some technologies are premature and others remain far more costly.
Strong government support and international cooperation can speed up the innovation and commercial implementation.
Supporting innovations for net-zero manufacturing, especially in emerging economies, can boost competitiveness while ensuring sustainable growth. It will also be important to make sure that new, local green jobs will be created around the next-generation industries.