How do we decarbonise the most carbon-intensive industries?

A factory overruns with pollution from heavy industry

Some industrial sectors are especially hard to decarbonise

The industry sector, which produces raw materials and goods, contributes around 21% of annual greenhouse gas emissions. Most conventional production processes are carbon-intensive. For example, the iron and steel industry alone produces 5% of all greenhouse gases globally.
However, many of the materials produced (such as steels, chemicals, textiles, and cements) are in growing need in many economies and much of the carbon dioxide emitted by the industries is inherent in the current production process itself. This makes the decarbonization of the industry highly difficult.